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# Walsh Hadamard Transform For Signal and Image Compression Using Matlab

##### November 25, 2021

The Walsh-Hadamard transform is a non-sinusoidal, orthogonal transform widely used in signal and image processing. In this transform, the signal is decomposed into a set of basis functions (similar to harmonics in Fourier).

These basis functions are the Walsh functions, rectangular or square waves with +1 or -1. In addition, like the fast Fourier transform(FFT), the Walsh-Hadamard transform has a fast version known as fast Walsh-Hadamard transform (FWHT).

The Walsh-Hamard has a wide application in the field of science and engineering. These applications include image processing, speech processing, signal and image compression, power spectrum analysis, spread spectrum analysis e.t.c.

This tutorial will look at signal and image compression using Matlab. We will look at its theory and computation for both 1-D and 2-D signals.

### Prerequisites

To follow along with this tutorial, you’ll need:

### the Forward and inverse WHT

The forward (FWHT), and the inverse (IFWHT) are symmetrical, and both use identical calculation processes. We define the FWHT and IWHT for a signal x(t) of length N as:

FWHT: y_n=\frac{1}{N}\sum x_i=\sum y_n WAL(n,i)$for i = 1,2,...,N  Where: WAL(n, i) are Walsh functions. To compute WHT, the length of signal N must be in the power of 2(i.e., N=2^2). If the length is not in the power of 2, it is with zeros to make it to the power of 2. Thus, you compute the equation of FWHT by matrix multiplication. x(t) ={x_1, x_2, ..., x_n}  y = \frac{1}{n}(H_n, x)  To elaborate this, we have: \begin{vmatrix}y_1\\y_2\\:\\:\\y_N\end{vmatrix}=\frac{1}{N}\begin{vmatrix}H_{11}&H_{12}....&H_{1N}\\H_{21}&H_{22}....&H_{2N}\\:\\:\\H_{N1}&H_{N2}....&H_{NN}\end{vmatrix}\begin{vmatrix}x_1\\x_2\\:\\:\\x_N\end{vmatrix}  Here, H_N is the Hadamard matrix, where N =2^n. Similarly, inverse transform can be obtained by: x = H_n^{-1}=H_ny H_n^{-1}=H_n^T=H_n  It is because H_n is orthogonal and involutionary. Orthogonal means that there is a perpendicular vector. So when we work this out, we are going to have: \begin{vmatrix}x_1\\x_2\\:\\:\\x_N\end{vmatrix}=\frac{1}{N}\begin{vmatrix}H_{11}&H_{12}....&H_{1N}\\H_{21}&H_{22}....&H_{2N}\\:\\:\\H_{N1}&H_{N2}....&H_{NN}\end{vmatrix}\begin{vmatrix}y_1\\y_2\\:\\:\\y_N\end{vmatrix}  ### Hadamard matrix It is the square matrix of 2x2, 4x4, 8x8, e.t.c. The dimensions are given by 2^N. The first order Hadamard matrix (H_1) is given by: H_1= \left(\begin{array}{cc} 1 & 1\\ 1 & -1 \end{array}\right)  The second Hadamard matrix is given by: H_2= \left(\begin{array}{cc} 1 & 1 & 1 & 1\\ 1 & -1 & 1 & -1\\ 1 & 1 & -1 & -1\\ 1 & -1 & -1 & 1 \end{array}\right)  The matrix H_2 is obtained from H_1 using the Kronecker product. H_2=H_1 * H_1  Where: * is the Kronecker product. What Kronecker product mean is, if we have two matrix A and B, then it is the product of matrix A and elements of B as shown below: A*B= \left(\begin{array}{cc} A(1,1).B & A(1,2).B & ... & A(1,N).B\\ : & : & & : &\\ : & : & & :\\ A(N,1).B & A(N,2).B & ... & A(N,N).B \end{array}\right)  The higher-order Hadamard matrix H_N can be obtained by the iteration rule below: H_N=H_1 * H_{N-1}  We want to see how we can get the Walsh matrix from Hadamard. Consider the hadamard matrix (H_2): If we look at the first row, we see that the sign of the elements does not change from the first column to the last. However, the sign changes from 1 to -1, then to 1, then -1 again, which sums to three changes in the second row, and then you move to the third and fourth rows. Here, we consider how the sign changes. If we arrange the rows in the increasing number of sign changes, it becomes the Walsh matrix, as shown below: ### Walsh-Hadamard transform for images For 2-D signals (images of N x N), You can obtain the forward Walsh method transform by the following matrix equation: Y=\frac{1}{N^2}(H_N*H_N)  Where: x is the input image. y is the output transformation matrix. H_N is the Hadamard or Walsh matrix. Note that if your input image is of the dimensions MxN, then instead of \frac{1}{N^2} you will have \frac{1}{MN^2}. It is because M and N must be to the power of 2. Obtaining the inverse transform is by the similar operation as that of forwarding transform; X=H_NYH_N  ### Example of WHT of 1-D signal in matlab let $$x(n)= \left(\begin{array}{cc} 1 & 5 & -3 & 2\end{array}\right)  Using N (hadamard matrix) as 4, we can find the inverse and forward transformation of the matrix. This can be done using the code below: x = [1;5;-3;2]; % signal H = hadamard(4); %hadamard matrix y = (1/4)*H*x; %forward transform x_r = H*y; %Inverse transform formula  In the code above, we use the formula of finding the forward and inverse transform of the matrix. We use 1/4*H*x for the forward since it is a 1-D signal, and for the inverse, the formula is H*y. Thus, the h is the Hadamard matrix, and x is our matrix. Alternatively, matlab has in-built functions fwht for forward transformation and ifwht for inverse transform. To apply this in our example, we will have the code below: Yy = fwht(x,4, 'hadamard'); %Forward WHT xr = ifwht(Yy,4, 'hadamard'); %Inverse WHT  ### Example of WHT of 2-D signals using Matlab let$$x(n)= \left(\begin{array}{cc} 250 & 128 & 100 & 25\\ 40 & 102 & 95 & 48\\ 75 & 64 & 120 & 97\\ 10 & 255 & 0 & 55\end{array}\right)  Just as we did for the 1-D, we will also do it here. We find the forward and the inverse transform of our matrix. The Hadamard matrix remains to be 4. For this 2-D signal, the formula will be 1/16*H*x. I = [250, 128, 100, 25;40 102 95 48;75, 64, 120, 97;10, 225, 0, 55]; % signal H = hadamard(4); %hadamard matrix y = (1/16)*H*I*H; %forward transform x_r = H*y*H; %Inverse transform formula  ### Fast WHT This method is developed with the complexity O(NlogN). It uses only addition and subtraction. To see how this works, we use the butterfly structure shown below: The blue arrows show addition, while the red shows subtraction. It makes the computation faster. Matlab’s in-built functions fwht and ifwht are based on this fast WHT algorithm. ### Matlab’s code to implement signal filtering using FWHT This program begins by loading the ECG signal in a .mat file. You can find ECG signal at PhysioNet.com. To load the data, we use the load command. For this to work, ensure that this file is in the current directory: %program for 1D hadamard transform load ecg; %loading ECG signal  We then extract the length of the signal, which corresponds to the$2^n\$. Since our signal is of 5000 samples, and 5000 is not to the power of 2, we take 4096. We use the ‘floor’ function to ensure that the number of samples is 4096.

n = log(length(x))/log(2);   %Adjusting length to make it power of 2
n = floor(n);
x = x(1:2^n);


Let’s add noise to make this signal noisy and find the WHT coefficients:

x = x + 0.1.*randn(1, length(x));    %Adding noise
y = fwht(x);          %Walsh hadamard transform(WHT)


The randn function adds random noise to the signal, and the fwt is Matlab’s in-built function for finding the forward Walsh Hadamard transform.

Since we want to visualize this, we should back up our coefficients. We are copying the coefficients to a different variable, yo, to get the backup for the coefficients.

y0=y; % backup


Since we just need the initials of the coefficients, we discard the coefficients. This means that we are taking the coefficients which are less than 500 only, and using them to re-construct our signal using the ifwht function:

y(500:end) = 0;   %Removing higher coefficients
xr = ifwht(y);     %signal reconstruction using inverse WHT


Now plot the signals to visualize the output:

subplot(221)     %plot for the noisy ecg signal
plot(x);   title('noisyECG signal');

subplot(222)    %plot for the hadamard coefficients
plot(abs(y0), 'k');   title('Hadamard transform co-efficient')

subplot(223)   % Truncated hadamard transform coefficients
plot(abs(y), 'k');   title('Truncated Hadamard transform co-efficient')

subplot(224)    % filtered ecg signal
plot(x);   title('filtered ECG signal');


Let’s create a plot for both the original and filtered signal in the same plot using the code below to see this more clearly:

figure   %plot of original and filtered ecg signals.
plot(x); hold on;
plot(xr, 'r', 'LineWidth', 1)
title('Original and filtered ECG signal')


x is the original signal, while xr is the filtered signal. The r means that the filtered signal is plotted red with a line width of 1.

The output is as shown below:

### Matlab code to implement image compression using FWHT

This method has a very good energy compaction property. Energy compaction property means very few coefficients have the maximum part of the energy. So, you can ignore or zero out a large number of co-efficient from the transform matrix. It is why you can achieve the compression of the input image:

%program for 2D Hadamard transform
[filename, pathname] = uigetfile('*.*', 'Select your greyscale image');
filewithpath = strcat(pathname, filename);
[r, c] = size(img);   %getting image size


We then make our image double format using the double function:

imgg = double(img);


Now perform a WHT using Matlab’s inbuilt function to the signal. Matlab is not capable of performing the transformation for 2-D signals. So we do it in columns and rows using the 1-D transformation method:

%Forward WHT
yc = fwht(imgg); %Column wise operation
yr = fwht(yc');  %Row wise operation
y = yr';   %WHT coefficients
yo=y;     %Co-efficient backup


yc gives the column transformation, and yr gives the row transformation equal to the WHT coefficients.

Discard your coefficients. It is done by using the code below:

y(256:r, 256:c) = 0;  %truncating WHT coefficients


You then perform inverse WHT on the discarded co-efficient to get the final signal. Also, here, Matlab cannot perform the inverse WHT for 2-D signals. So, we do it in columns and rows, as shown below:

%inverse WHT
Ir1 = ifwht(y);  %column wise operation
Ir2 = ifwht(Ir1'); %Row wise operation
imgr = Ir2';      %recorvered image


Since the output image from the inverse WHT is in the double format, we convert it to uint8 format and write the image in the current directory with the name imgcompressed.jpg:

imgr8 = uint8(imgr);
imwrite(imgr8, 'imgcompressed.jpg');    % writing image


Now compare the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) of the original and the compressed image. This enables you to have the idea about the quality:

%Calculate PSNR
mse = sum(sum((imgr-imgg).^2))/(r*c);
maxp = max(max(imgr(:)), max(imgg(:)));
PSNR = 10*log10(double((maxp^2)/mse));

fprintf('\n PSNR=%f\n', PSNR);


mse is the root mean square of the signal, and maxp is the maximum pixel of the image. Thus, the formula for finding the PSNR is 10log10(maxp^2)/mse.

To make it more visible, we plot the outputs using the code below:

%displaying results
subplot(221)   %plot of the original image
imshow(img);    title('Original image')

subplot(222)   %plot of the hadamard transform coefficients

subplot(223)  %plot of the truncated hadamard transform coefficients

subplot(224)  % Plot of the finally compressed image
imshow(imgr8);    title('compressed image');


The output is as shown below:

As we can see, there is no difference between the input image and the output image in terms of appearance. It is how efficiently this method works.

To see if your image is compressed, you can compare the input and output sizes in the folders. The image is compressed from 113kb to 32kb, which is a good compression.

### Conclusion

Walsh-Hadamard, which is a combination of two algorithms, Walsh and Hadamard, is an efficient method of signal filtering and image compression, as we have seen. It is because these algorithms work on the matrix basic.

Since signals and images are a combination of matrices, this method finds it easy to handle them efficiently and fast. Also, the in-built functions in Matlab make the whole process simple, since writing the code of the whole algorithm without Matlab is tiresome.

Happy coding!

Peer Review Contributions by: Monica Masae