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How to Create a GraphQL Server using MongoDB and Juniper

March 15, 2022

GraphQL is an open-source query language. It is intuitive and well-designed for building APIs. It is built around HTTP to receive resources from a server.

GraphQL gives a single endpoint to determine what data is returned based on the query sent to that endpoint.

Therefore, it is a more flexible way to interact with a server than a REST API.

A REST API is based on executing different endpoints to get specific data, returning extra information that is not required.

However, with GraphQL API, only the data specified in the GraphQL query is obtained. This way, we only make a single request to the server that queries different resources and returns the required data.

This article aims to introduce Rust developers to the concept of GraphQL by building a fully-functional application using GraphQL, Rust programming language, and MongoDB database.


To follow along with this article, it is helpful to have the following:

  • MongoDB installed on your computer.
  • Some knowledge of how to use the MongoDB database.
  • Rust compiler installed on your computer.
  • Some basic knowledge working with GraphQL, Rust, Juniper, and Actix framework.

Setting up the application

Run the following command to confirm that you have Rust installed:

cargo -v

If you do not get the current version of Rust, consider installing Rust before proceeding with this tutorial.

Next, create a project directory, then launch a terminal that points to the created project directory.

Finally, run the following command to initialize the Rust template project:

cargo init

Test the default template project created by running the following command:

cargo run

The project will build and then log the Hello, world! text, implying that your Rust application is well set.

We will need a couple of dependencies to set up a Rust server and communicate with the MongoDB database. These dependencies include:

  • Actix-Web framework to set up and manage a Rust HTTP server.
  • Dotenv to connect to a MongoDB database, you will need to set up environment variables that host the MongoDB connection parameters, such as MongoDB connection URL. Dotenv is used to load the environmental variables to project files.
  • Features for handling asynchronous calls to MongoDB.
  • MongoDB. We need a MongoDB driver to communicate between the GraphQL server and the MongoDB database.
  • serde_json. When sending data to MongoDB, we need to serialize it to JSON format. We will use serde_json to get the GraphQL API requests and convert the data being sent into JSON format.
  • Juniper framework. This is a GraphQL server framework for the Rust programming language. Juniper will help us write a GraphQL server in Rust. It provides type-safe GraphQL APIs and convenient schemas definitions for Rust.
  • Tokio for handling asynchronous calls.

To use the above dependencies, make sure they are available in our project. Navigate to the Cargo.toml file in the project root directory and update is as follows:

juniper = "0.13.1"
dotenv = "0.9.0"
serde_json = "1.0"
actix-web = "1.0.0"
serde = { version = "1.0", features = ["derive"] }
tokio = { version = "0.2", features = ["full"] }
futures = "0.1"
version = "2.1.0"
features = ["sync"]
default-features = false

Then we need to install the dependencies by running the following command:

cargo run

Setting up the schema

A schema is a collection of fields specific to a data object. It defines the GraphQL API blueprint. A schema also defines types such as query and mutation.

Query and mutation are requests a client makes to access the API data. A query type sets the API read operation.

It is commonly known as the GET request, especially using the REST approach. A mutations type sets the API-write operations, such as POST and PUT requests.

To set up these types and fields, head over to the project src directory and create a file. This file will define the Todo fields, query, mutation, and handle the connection to the database.

First, we need to import RootNode from juniper. This module will help us use Juniper to write the GraphQL schema.

use juniper::{RootNode};

Define the schema of the Todo fields:

struct Todo {
    id: i32,
    title: String,
    description: String,
    completed: bool

Each todo item will have an id, title, description, and completed fields from above.

Define a juniper object for the above todo fields:

#[juniper::object(description = "A todo")]
impl Todo{
    pub fn id(&self)->i32{

    pub fn title(&self)->&str{

    pub fn description(&self)->&str{

    pub fn completed(&self)->bool{

The objects defined by the Todo() function set the fields that a client can request from the GraphQL API.

Define the root query and a juniper object for the root query. For now, we use a query with dummy data and set up the MongoDB dynamic data later in this guide.

pub struct QueryRoot;

impl QueryRoot{
    fn todos() -> Vec<Todo> {
                title:"Watching Basketball".to_string(),
                description:"Watchig the NBA finals".to_string(),
                completed: false
                title:"Watching Football".to_string(),
                description:"Watching the NFL".to_string(),
                completed: false

We need to define the root mutation and the structure for adding new todo using the GraphQLInputObject:

pub struct MutationRoot;

pub struct NewTodo{
    pub title: String,
    pub description: String,
    pub completed: bool

The GraphQLInputObject sets the objects a client needs to use when creating a new todo. For example, each new todo will have a title, description, and completed. In addition, this object sets the structure that mutation requires to write data to a GraphQL server.

Define the juniper object for the mutation:

impl MutationRoot {
    fn create_todo(new_todo: NewTodo) -> Todo {        
            completed: new_todo.completed

This object returns the records set by the mock query.

The scheme is now set and ready to be executed. Go ahead and define a function to create the schema:

pub type Schema = RootNode<'static, QueryRoot, MutationRoot>;

pub fn create_schema() -> Schema {
    return Schema::new(QueryRoot, MutationRoot);

Setting up the routes

To access any web-based API, we need to set up routes that will help us send and receive requests and responses, respectively.

This GraphQL API will have the following two routes:

  • /graphql: For executing the queries and mutation.
  • /graphiql: For loading the GraphQL playground to execute queries and mutations.

To set up these routes, navigate to the and start by updating your modules and dependencies imports as follows:

extern crate juniper;

use std::io;
use std::sync::Arc;

use actix_web::{web, App, Error, HttpResponse, HttpServer};
use futures::future::Future;
use juniper::http::graphiql::graphiql_source;
use juniper::http::GraphQLRequest;

mod schema;
use schema::{create_schema, Schema};

Inside the main() function, configure the two routes as follows:

fn main() -> io::Result<()> {

// Initialize the graphql schema
let schema = std::sync::Arc::new(create_schema());

// move: to create a copy of the schema
HttpServer::new(move || {

        // clone the schema
        // service for executing query and mutation requests
        // service for providing an interface to send the requests

// start on port 8080

From this main() function:

  • Initialize the GraphQL schema defined earlier.
  • Create a new instance of HTTPServer with a copy of the schema.
  • Clone the schema data.
  • Set up graphql and graphiql service.
  • Run the server on localhost port 8080.

These routes will execute the graphql and graphiql services. Go ahead and define them as follows:

  • Define the graphql service:
fn graphql(
        st: web::Data<Arc<Schema>>,
        data: web::Json<GraphQLRequest>,
    ) -> impl Future<Item = HttpResponse, Error = Error> {

        // Get the GraphQL request in JSON
        web::block(move || {
            let res = data.execute(&st, &());
            Ok::<_, serde_json::error::Error>(serde_json::to_string(&res)?)

        // Error occurred.

        // Successful.
        .and_then(|user| {

This graphql() function returns an asynchronous call with either a success or error state.

First, it gets the GraphQL request in JSON and executes them. Then it chains them to .map_err in case an error occurs and .and_then if an HTTP response has been successful.

  • Define the graphiql service:
fn graphiql() -> HttpResponse {

    // Get the HTML content
    let html = graphiql_source("http://localhost:8080/graphql");
    // Render the HTML content
        .content_type("text/html; charset=utf-8")

The graphiql() function gets the HTML content that executes the GraphQL playground and renders it to the browser.

This process creates an interactive interface that allows us to execute our API queries and mutations.

We can now test out the development server using the below Cargo command:

cargo run

The project should run and expose port 8080 on your localhost.

We can now access the GraphQL playground using the http://localhost:8080/graphiql route from your browser.

Write a query on the GraphQL playground to get the todos:

query GetTodos {

Hit the play button at the center to visualize the results as below:


Write a mutation on the GraphQL playground to add a todo:

mutation CreateTodo{
      title:"Coding in Rust",
      description:"Implementing GraphQL and MongoDB",

Feel free to change the title and description. Then, hit the play button at the center and observe the results.


The next step will now involve setting up a database.

Setting up the MongoDB database

The above example uses dummy data to run the queries and mutations. First, let’s set a MongoDB database and execute the API with dynamic data.

Create a .env at the root of the project. In this file, specify the MongoDB database URL. This file specifies the URL that allows the application to connect to MongoDB.


Open the file and import dotenv for accessing the env variable, Juniper, Serde, and MongoDB driver components:

// For RootNode and FieldResult type
use juniper::{RootNode,FieldResult};
// For environment variables
use dotenv::dotenv; 
use mongodb::{
    // doc type
     // synchronous calls
// serializing and derializing data
use serde::{Serialize,Deserialize}; 

Redefine the schema of a Todo. The schema will reflect the dynamic data saved in MongoDB.

#[derive(Debug, Serialize, Deserialize)]
struct Todo {
    title: String,
    description: String,
    completed: bool

This code snippet defines the Debug, Serialize, and Deserialize properties on a todo.

Since we will be working with MongoDB, we will also remove the id property. MongoDB will auto-create it whenever we add a new todo.

Define a function that establishes database connection:

fn connect_to_db()-> FieldResult<Client> {
    // Load the database URL.
    let db_url = std::env::var("MONGODB_URL").expect("MONGODB_URL must be set"); 
    // Get the client synchronously.
    let client = Client::with_uri_str(&db_url)?; 
    // return the client.
    return Ok(client); 

Running the queries

We need to replace the mock todos we were fetching locally with todos to be fetched from the database.

Therefore, we will make the following changes to the file and replace the dummy todos data.

Navigate to QueryRoot and edit todos() function as follows:

fn todos() -> FieldResult<Vec<Todo>> {
    // Initialize the database connection
    let client = connect_to_db()?; 
    // Connect to the todos collection
    let collection = client.database("test").collection("todos"); 
    / Get the cursor to loop through the todos
    let cursor = collection.find(None, None).unwrap(); /
    // Iniatialize a mutation to store the todos
    let mut todos = Vec::new(); 
    // Map through the todos from the cursor, adding them to the list
    for result in cursor { 
    // Return the todos
    return Ok({ 

Running the Mutation

As we said, a mutation offers write-operation to a GraphQL server. Previously, the API was returning mock todos, but now we can send new todos values and save them in the database.

Therefore, in the file, navigate to the MutationRoot and edit create_todo() as follows:

fn create_todo(new_todo: NewTodo) -> FieldResult<Todo> {
    // Connect to the database
    let client = connect_to_db()?; 
    // Connect to the collection
    let collection = client.database("todos").collection("todos"); 
    // Instanciate the todo to be saved
    let todo = doc!{ 
        "title": new_todo.title,
        "description": new_todo.description,
        "completed": new_todo.completed
    // Save the todo and return the ID
    let result = collection.insert_one(todo, None).unwrap(); 
    // Get the ID
    let id = result.inserted_id.as_object_id().unwrap().to_hex(); 
    // Query for the saved ID
    let inserted_todo = collection.find_one(Some(doc!{"_id": id}), None).unwrap().unwrap(); 
    // Return the saved todo
    return Ok(Todo{ 
        title: inserted_todo.get("title").unwrap().as_str().unwrap().to_string(),
        description: inserted_todo.get("description").unwrap().as_str().unwrap().to_string(),
        completed: inserted_todo.get("completed").unwrap().as_bool().unwrap()

At this stage, when a new todo is sent, it will be saved to the database. To test this, stop the development server using CTRL + C and restart it using the cargo command:

cargo run

Once the server is up and running, open GraphQL playground http://localhost:8080/graphiql, and run the queries and mutations as showcased in the following image samples:

  • Creating a todo mutation with MongoDB:


  • Getting todos query with MongoDB:


  • Getting todos MongoDB response:



APIs power many world applications. Therefore, APIs must have the capacity to deliver varying amounts of data.

Exposing APIs with GraphQL enables clients to access this data in different formats.

They can also request only the information they need which allows them to access the API data faster and more flexibly.

Check the code used in this tutorial on this GitHub repository.

Peer Review Contributions by: Jerim Kaura