How to Deploy Machine Learning Model as an App in Python Using Gradio

December 22, 2021

Gradio is an open-source python library that allows you to quickly create easy-to-use, customizable UI components for your machine learning model.

Gradio allows you to integrate the GUI directly into your Python notebook making it easier to use.

In this tutorial, we will explore various Gradio functions and build a simple Gradio interface.

We will then use the Gradio functions to build an image classification model. Finally, we will deploy the web application so that it can be accessed using a browser.

Table of contents


For a better understanding of this tutorial, the reader must have:

Let’s get started!

Getting started with Gradio

Gradio is a powerful tool that integrates with most Python libraries including:

  1. Hugging face: It is an open-source library used to build natural language processing applications.
  2. Matplotlib: It is a Python library used for visualization in machine learning.
  3. Numpy: It is used for data analysis and manipulation.
  4. PyTorch: It is used for computer vision and natural language processing.
  5. Sckit-learn: It provides various classification, regression, and clustering algorithms for machine learning.
  6. Tensorflow: It is used to perform machine learning and artificial intelligence tasks.

Gradio can also be embedded in Jupyter notebooks and Google Colab notebooks. This does not require running a separate Python script. A user can interact with the model right in the working environment.

When you launch a Gradio interface, it automatically generates a link. It allows other people to interact with your application remotely using the link.

Let’s look at the key benefits of Gradio in detail.

Benefits of using Gradio

  • Enables you to create demos of your machine learning model. These demos can be used to present ideas to clients, users, and team members before the actual application is implemented.

  • Gradio allows the collection of feedback from the user. A developer can, therefore, make the necessary improvements.

  • When using Gradio, you can easily identify bugs and errors in the model. This enables you to remove the bugs before production.

  • Gradio has an easy setup which makes it easier to build models of machine learning apps.

  • Gradio enables you to permanently deploy an application on online servers.

  • Gradio generates a public link that enables other users to interact with the application remotely.

Installing Gradio

To get started with Gradio, we need to install it on our computers. Since we are using Google Colab, we install Gradio using the following command:

!pip install -q gradio

Then, import Gradio using the below command:

import gradio as gr

We will start by creating simple Gradio interfaces before we build the image classification model.

Simple Gradio interface

To create a user interface, we will start by creating a simple greet function. The function will return Hello and the name of the user.

The function is created using the code below:

def greet(name):
  return "Hello " + name + "!"

The next thing, we need to add the logic to create a user interface. The user interface will allow users to input their names.

iface = gr.Interface(fn=greet, inputs="text", outputs="text")

In this code, we have built our interface using the gr.interface function. This function has the following parameters:

  • fn - This takes the created function as an argument. In our case, the created function is greet.

  • inputs - These are input component types that users enter in the Gradio interface. In our case, the input type is text.

  • outputs - The output will be the text after processing.

We now launch the user interface using the launch() method. The UI will appear in the Google Colab notebook.

The user interface will also run in your browser using the following link: https://localhost:7860/.

Gradio UI

The user interface is interactive. You can input your name, for example, kelvin, and press the submit button and it outputs Hello Kelvin.

Gradio also provides a unique URL/public link that allows people to access your application. The link is which can also be found in the Google Colab notebook.

In the next example, we will create a user interface that can handle multiple inputs and outputs.

Implementing multiple inputs and outputs

We will use a Python function that takes in three parameters: myname, is_day, and temperature.

The function returns the name of the user, the time of day, and the temperature in degrees celsius.

If it’s morning, the user’s interface will display Good Morning.

Incase it’s evening, the user interface will display Good Evening. This can be achieved using the following code:

def greet(myname, is_day, temperature):
  greeting = "Good Morning" if is_day else "Good Evening "
  salute = "%s %s. It is %s degrees today" % (
    greeting, myname, temperature)
  celsius = (temperature - 24) * 7 / 9
  return salute, round(celsius, 2)

Let’s create the Gradio interface. The function used to create the Gradio interface is shown below:

iface = gr.Interface(
 inputs=["text", "checkbox", gr.inputs.Slider(0, 100)],
 outputs=["text", "number"])

The gr.Interface takes in three-parameter:

  • fn. It takes in the created function: greet.

  • inputs - The input component will be a text type and a check box to select if the day is is_day.

  • We also have to specify gr.inputs.Slider. This is used to select the degree celsius of the day between 0 and 100.

  • outputs- This will display the output which will be in text form and number to represent the degrees celsius.

Let’s check the output:

Multiple inputs and outputs

If the user does not select the checkbox, the output will be as shown below:

Multiple inputs and outputs

So far, we have created two Gradio user interfaces using various functions. We were able to access the user interface both in the Google Colab application and browser.

Let’s now use Gradio to create the image classification model.

Image classification model

To build the image classification model, we need to import the machine learning packages.

These packages will be used to build the model. Gradio will be utilized to build the user interface for the model.

This enables users to interact with the application. We import them using the following code:

import tensorflow as tf
import numpy as np
import requests


It’s used to train our model to understand image classification. It contains deep neural networks with many layers that form the model architecture.


It will be used for data analysis and manipulation.


It sends HTTP requests using Python. This enables us to interact with an external server.

Let’s load the method used for image classification:

inception_net = tf.keras.applications.InceptionV3()

The InceptionV3() method is used to handle image classification in the TensorFlow library.

Adding human-readable labels

In this section, we are dealing with the classification of animal images. We need to add the real names of these animals into our model so that humans can understand them.

This is done using the following code:

response = requests.get("")
labels = response.text.split("\n")

In this code, requests.get has been used to download all the animal names from “".

response.text.split is used to format the names and add them into the model as labels.

Let’s now create a function to classify the images:

def classify_image(inp):
    inp = inp.reshape((-1, 299, 299, 3))
    inp = tf.keras.applications.inception_v3.preprocess_input(inp)
    prediction = inception_net.predict(inp).flatten()
 return {labels[i]: float(prediction[i]) for i in range(2000)}

Let’s understand the function above:

inp.reshape is used to reshape our image into the given dimension to make it easier to use. We have also added our inception_v3() into our input images.

We flatten the input layer to make it fit in our model. Finally, we return the output after prediction using the prediction() method.

Building the UI using Gradio

We start by initializing the input component of the Gradio UI. The input component holds the image uploaded by the user.

The user will be able to upload an animal image in the UI, then the machine learning model should be able to classify the animal and output its name.

The input component should match the dimensions given in the classification function. The input components will hold an image with a dimension of 299, 299, 3.

The code below specifies the inputs. Image as 299, 299 and outputs.Label will have a total of three predictions.

The three predictions are all the possible predictions made by the model.

image = gr.inputs.Image(shape=(299, 299))
label = gr.outputs.Label(num_top_classes=3)

Let’s now create the Gradio interface using the following function:


The gr.Interface function has four parameters:

  • classify_image: This function is used for image classification.
  • Image: The image provided by the user.
  • Label: The output that will be displayed after the prediction.
  • launch(): This Will be used to launch the Gradio interface on the Google Colab notebook or via a public link.

Once you run the above code, it will display the user interface as shown below.

Image classification interface

The above user interface has an input component that allows one to drag and drop or upload an image to be classified.

Let’s download an image of a lion or any other animal. Drag and drop or upload the image into the input component.

Click the submit button to see the prediction results:

Prediction results

Gradio gave the prediction results as follows:

  • lion: 98% probability.
  • cheetah: 0% probability.
  • Arabian camel: 0% probability.

This shows that the model was able to make a right prediction of a lion with a probability of 98%.

Gradio also automatically deploys the image classification application. We can access the application using a unique URL/public link:

This link will be available in your Google Colab notebook once you launch the user interface.

Therefore, we have successfully deployed our application. It will be accessible via the unique URL. This machine learning application can be used for production.


In this tutorial, we have learned about how to deploy a machine learning model as an app in Python using Gradio.

We started by discussing the benefits of Gradio and how it generates beautiful user interfaces.

We then explored Gradio functions and created user interfaces using these functions. From there, we built an image classification model which was able to classify animal images.

Finally, the application was automatically deployed. People can now interact with the application using the unique URL provided by Gradio.

Therefore, this tutorial will help readers to deploy a machine learning model as an app in Python using Gradio.

To get this image classification model, click here

Further reading

Peer Review Contributions by: Monica Masae