Paging in Android

February 4, 2021

With an increase in data, we may need to display it in small amounts in our application. This ensures that the device’s resources are not overused. Take for instance a database that receives updates every day. We would not need to display data that was updated a week ago unless the user requests it.

A good approach would be to split the data into “pages” and show it to the user one “page” after another. Some restful services like The Dog API have adopted this technique. In Android, achieving such a workflow has proved to be a tedious process that can get messy if not handled well.

That is where the paging library comes into play. It ensures a clean flow of data by observing the user’s scrolling process.

The basic flow is, once a user nears the end of a recyclerview, the library fetches the next set of data and updates the recyclerview. In this tutorial, we shall integrate the paging library into an Android application.

NOTE: This tutorial uses version 2 of the paging library at the time of publishing. Version 3 is in alpha and not suitable for production.


To follow through the article, you will need:

  • Android Studio installed
  • A basic understanding of Kotlin
  • Some experience with the Room library.

Step 1 — Getting the starter code

You can download the starter code for this tutorial on GitHub.

In the starter code, we have a RoomDatabase.Callback that populates our local database with 50 users on creation. We shall be using this data to demonstrate the paging library.

Step 2 — Reading data from Room

In the AppDao interface, we have a function to read data from our database. It has a return type of DataSource.Factory<Int, User>. DataSource is used to load our data in form of pages into a PagedList once it is requested.

The Int tells Room to make use of a PositionalDataSource object. PositionalDataSource is used when the size of data is known and the data is grouped based on its position. If we were getting data from the network, we would make use of PageKeyedDataSource. This is because the data size is only known when we get a response from the network.

Step 3 — Setting up the adapter

The adapter is used to connect our recyclerview to the paged data. In the androidkt directory, create a class called UsersAdapter and add the code below.

class UsersAdapter: PagedListAdapter<User, UserViewHolder>() {

    override fun onCreateViewHolder(parent: ViewGroup, viewType: Int): UserViewHolder {

    override fun onBindViewHolder(holder: UserViewHolder, position: Int) {

We infer two types in the PagedListAdapter: the data type of each list item and the viewholder.

In the same file, create the UserViewHolder class and make it extend the RecyclerView.ViewHolder class.

class UserViewHolder(): RecyclerView.ViewHolder()

Add the following to the onCreateViewHolder to create the viewholder for our list item.

override fun onCreateViewHolder(parent: ViewGroup, viewType: Int): UserViewHolder {
    return UserViewHolder(ListItemBinding.inflate(LayoutInflater.from(parent.context), parent, false))

The application uses the ViewBinding library so we pass in the binding class to the viewholder.

class UserViewHolder(private val binding: ListItemBinding): RecyclerView.ViewHolder(binding.root)

In the onBindViewHolder, we take care of binding the data to the viewholder.

Add the following code:

override fun onBindViewHolder(holder: UserViewHolder, position: Int) {

We use the getItem method to get the item in the list based on position. In the viewholder class, add the bind function to add data to the UI.

fun bind(user: User) { = = user.number.toString()

The application has the coil image library set up. We load the images using the load extension.

In a normal recyclerview setting, this would be the end of it, but we still have an error in our UsersAdapter class. The PagedListAdapter requires a diffing callback.

In the same file, add the following code:

private val DIFF_CALLBACK = object : DiffUtil.ItemCallback<User>() {
    override fun areItemsTheSame(oldItem: User, newItem: User) =
        oldItem.number == newItem.number

    override fun areContentsTheSame(oldItem: User, newItem: User) =
        oldItem == newItem


We use the DiffUtil to check the difference in multiple lists for correct positioning and animations wherever needed. You can go through this article for a better understanding of the purpose of this util class.

Our adapter is now ready to be used.

Step 4 — Finishing up

In our MainViewModel, get an instance of the database in order to access the dao. Then get the datasource and convert it to LiveData.

private val dao = AppDatabase.getDatabase(application).dao()
val users = dao.getUsers().toLiveData(pageSize = 10)

We pass in the page size to define how many items will be emitted at once. Now, our data will have 5 pages or rather, 5 PageList objects will be emitted.

Create an instance of our adapter. Then observe the value in the MainActivity. Once a value is emitted, submit the list to the adapter.

viewModel.users.observe(this, { usersAdapter.submitList(it) })

Create the binding object for the MainActivity and set content layout. Use the binding object to get the recyclerview and set the adapter.

class MainActivity : AppCompatActivity() {

    private val viewModel: MainViewModel by viewModels()
    private lateinit var binding: ActivityMainBinding
    private val usersAdapter = UsersAdapter()

    override fun onCreate(savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
        binding = ActivityMainBinding.inflate(layoutInflater)

        viewModel.users.observe(this, { usersAdapter.submitList(it) })
        binding.recycler.adapter = usersAdapter

Once you run the application, you should get a list of the users.

NOTE: Don’t forget to add internet permission in the application manifest for image downloading.


We just went through how you implement the paging library in an Android application. The setup is similar to the recyclerview setup and is also quite simple. The library also ensures a good flow of data when updating your list. Next up we shall check on migrating to paging library version 3. You can go ahead and check the final code on GitHub.

Feel free to raise any issue or PR.

Happy coding!

Peer Review Contributions by: Peter Kayere

About the author

Linus Muema

Linus Muema is a Kotlin and Javascript developer. He has a great passion for writing code, trying out new programming paradigms, and is always ready to help other developers.

This article was contributed by a student member of Section's Engineering Education Program. Please report any errors or innaccuracies to